Chapter 1

1 We are to rejoice under the cross, 5 to ask patience of God, 13 and in our trials not to impute our weakness, or sins, unto him, 19 but rather to hearken to the word, to meditate in it, and to do thereafter. 26 Otherwise men may seem, but never be truly religious.

1. James. That the apostle thus simply refers to himself testifies to the fact that he was well known and felt no need to identify himself further. Today, however, there is considerable uncertainty as to which James of NT times the writer was. For the meaning of the name James see on Mark 3:17. For a discussion of the authorship of this epistle see pp. 497–500.

Servant. Gr. doulos(see on Rom. 1:1). In simple dignity James styles himself “servant” rather than “apostle,” a title he no doubt might properly have used. Though James was a respected worker in Christ’s kingdom on earth, he refers to himself as only a “servant.” He presents a worthy example for all charged with responsibility in the church today. There is no greater honor than being a “servant” of God.

Of the Lord. James recognizes that his credentials as “a servant” make him a representative of both the Son and the Father. Although this epistle often alludes to Christ’s teachings, the only other direct reference to Him by name is in ch. 2:1.

The twelve tribes. That is, the twelve tribes of Israel (see Gen. 35:22–26; 49:28; Acts 7:8). The ten tribes of the northern kingdom had gone into captivity in 722 b.c. (2 Kings 17:6, 23). Only a few of their descendants ever returned to Palestine (cf. on Ezra 6:17; 8:35). However, there is some evidence that in NT times at least some of these tribes were still recognized. For example, Anna was of the tribe of Aser (Luke 2:36; see on Acts 26:7). Notwithstanding, James may have used the term “twelve tribes” in a collective sense of Jews generally, irrespective of tribal affiliation.

Some hold that James is speaking of the twelve tribes of spiritual Israel (see on Rev. 7:4); others, that his letter is addressed chiefly to Jewish Christians. This commentary favors the latter view. However, whatever view is taken, the spiritual instruction of the epistle remains the same.

James clearly identifies himself and his intended readers as Jews. He refers, for instance, to Abraham as “our father” (ch. 2:21) and to the “assembly [literally, “synagogue”]” (v. 2), the usual Jewish place for religious assembly (see Vol. V, pp. 56, 57). But the writer and the readers to whom the epistle was originally addressed were also Christians, as his repeated references to Jesus Christ as “Lord” make evident (see chs. 1:1, 7, 12; 2:1; 5:7, 11). Thus, in writing to the “twelve tribes” scattered abroad, James is addressing Jewish Christians living here and there throughout the Roman world (cf. 1 Peter 1:1). There is no reason to think that he was writing with unconverted Jews in mind, or that he anticipated that the letter would necessarily be read by some members of all of the twelve tribes of Israel.

It should be remembered that, in general, Hebrew Christians of apostolic times ever considered themselves devout Jews, that they remained loyal, in a sense, to Judaism, and in varying degrees anticipated the eventual fulfillment of all the promises made to Israel by the prophets of old, through Jesus Christ (cf. Acts 1:6). Few of them understood that Israel as a nation had forfeited to the Christian church the mandate of Heaven to be God’s chosen people (see Vol. IV, pp. 35, 36). Mention of the “twelve tribes” would remind these Jewish Christians of their early history as a nation and inspire the hope that, in Christ, they might soon enter upon the rich heritage promised the fathers (see Vol. IV, pp. 26–30). Even Paul, the apostle to the Gentiles, uses the term (see Acts 26:7; cf. Matt. 19:28; cf. on Rom. 11:25, 26).

Scattered abroad. Literally, “in the dispersion” (cf. Peter 1:1). The dispersion of the Jews among the other nations is specifically referred to in the time of Esther (Esther 3:8) and at Pentecost (Acts 2:5; Acts 2:5, 9–11; see The Diaspora). For comment on the Jews of the Dispersion see Vol. V, pp. 59, 60. The original purpose of God was for the Jews to be missionaries to the whole world. Even though Israel failed to fulfill this plan as first designed, the effect of the two captivities was to accomplish—in part—God’s original purpose. For further comment on God’s plan for ancient Israel see Vol. IV, pp. 26–30.

Greeting. Gr. chairoµ, “to rejoice.” Compare the use of chairoµ in Luke 1:28; see on Rom. 1:7. The word was used also in parting in the sense of “may joy be with you.” Compare the Hebrew form of greeting (see on Jer. 6:14). This form of greeting does not occur elsewhere in the epistles. Its use in Acts 15:23 is one of the few peculiarities in style that suggest a possible identification of the author of this epistle with the James of the latter part of the book of Acts (see pp. 497–500).

2. My brethren. At the outset the apostle expresses the spirit of fellowship he feels with his readers. This warmth of affection would reveal the constructive nature of his admonitions concerning problems of everyday life. James uses this form of address altogether 15 times, or once every 7 verses on the average, in an apparent effort to stress the bond of brotherhood that bound his heart to theirs in Christian fellowship.

Count. Or, “consider,” “deem,” “think.” It is the privilege and duty of the Christian to take an intelligent attitude toward the tests and trials that beset his pathway. He needs to study and understand God’s permissive relationship to such experiences (see on Job 42:5; Ps. 38:3; 39:9; Matt. 6:13; Rom. 8:28).

All joy. That is, pure, unmixed joy. To the mature Christian the trials and tests of life need bring no burden of disappointment or discouragement. All this the Christian endures in faith and hope, “as seeing him who is invisible” (Heb. 11:27). Christian joy and courage are based, not on external circumstances—which may often be most forbidding—but on faith in God’s overruling providence and an intelligent understanding of His dealings with men. Human philosophies of life, religious or secular, may prepare men to meet trouble philosophically, with a calm and patient spirit, but Christianity teaches men how to be joyful under such circumstances through an intelligent understanding of the causes of suffering and through faith in God.

When ye fall. That the Christian may expect “temptations” periodically is evident from the word “when,” or more literally, “whenever.” The word “fall” does not necessarily reflect spiritual declension. To “fall into … temptations” simply means to encounter them (cf. Luke 10:30; Acts 27:41). Such situations are usually unsought, unexpected, and unwelcome. Furthermore, the “temptations” to which James here refers apparently constitute major obstacles that could easily overwhelm one whose mind is not “stayed” on God (see on Isa. 26:3, 4).

Divers. Or, “various.” Manifold are the “temptations” to which mankind—especially the Christian—is subject.

Temptations. Gr. peirasmoi, “tests,” “trials,” “afflictions,” “troubles,” “enticements [to sin]” (see on Matt. 6:13; cf. on Matt. 4:1). The word peirasmoi includes far more than the word “temptations” conveys to the modern English reader. It includes such afflictions as sickness, persecution, poverty, and calamity. Trials, whether expressly designed by Satan to tempt a man to sin, or only to annoy and harass him, are always a test of Christian experience.

Too often even the most earnest Christians fail to understand and ministry of suffering and temptation in the formation of character, and as a result not only fail to profit from these experiences as they might but make their own way harder and lose the fellowship with God that might otherwise be theirs. There is no experience in life, however bitter or disappointing, that may not, in the providence of God and by the grace of Christ, contribute to Christian growth, bring us closer to God, and enrich our understanding of His love for us. Paul is the classic NT example of how a Christian can turn every defeat into victory (see on 2 Cor. 2:14; 4:8–11; 12:7–10). For a more complete analysis of the Christian attitude toward trials and suffering in general see on Ps. 38:3.

Knowing. Verse 3 states the basis for the rejoicing noted in v. 2. James reminds his readers that personal joy amid life’s afflictions can be experienced only by those who face them with a sound, stabilizing Christian philosophy.

Trying. Gr. dokimion, “proving,” “testing.” This word refers not only to the testing of a Christian’s faith but more precisely to that attribute of faith that makes it victorious over the problems of life. The papyri (see Vol. V, pp. 104, 105) use this word in connection with gold to describe “standard gold,” that is, gold that measures up to the test and is found genuine. The phrase, “the trying of your faith,” may thus describe faith that comes up to the test.

Faith. Gr. pistis, “faith,” “conviction,” “belief,” “trust.” James speaks of victorious faith that has successfully faced the varied problems of life, or “divers temptations.” Each conflict with “temptation” strengthens the faith of a victorious Christian. As a veteran of earthly warfare who has learned to face habitual danger confidently is more trustworthy than a raw recruit, so the victorious Christian is better prepared for the trials he must meet than the Christian whose faith is untried.

This faith is the unswerving conviction that Jesus Christ has a satisfying plan of life for every man and that for every trial He provides a solution. The man of faith believes that no person or circumstance can thwart the plan that God has for the happiness of His children.

Patience. Gr. hupomoneµ, “steadfastness,” “endurance,” “constancy,” “patience” (see on Rom. 5:3). This enduring power is the result of faith that has been tried and found triumphant. Too often the English word “patience” suggests mere passive submission. However, hupomoneµ emphasizes the active staying power that makes men triumphant over their “divers temptations” (see Luke 8:15; Rom. 2:7; Heb. 10:36; Rev. 14:12). This character asset is needed by all who face dreary adversities, whether of a personal nature or such as often confront them when they seek to advance the cause of God. By faith we believe that God is working with us, and this conviction develops a hardy steadfastness that will not submit to defeat.

4. Have. The acquiring of patient endurance is actually the process of developing a Christlike character. To achieve the choice result of active endurance, which itself is a product of a cheerful faith, we must not limit, or weaken, our enduring power by murmuring, complaining, or rebelling. See Isa. 26:3.

Perfect work. Or, “completed work,” “full effect” (RSV; see on Matt. 5:48). The meaning may best be expressed thus: “Let patient endurance continue until it has completed its task.” Compare John 17:4, where Jesus speaks of carrying forward His appointed task until He had “finished the work.”

Perfect and entire. Not a single desirable character trait is to be lacking; each is to be developed to perfection. These two words together suggest the fullest possible attainment of the Christlike life. Patient endurance will help us fulfill this task of reproducing the character of Christ, which is the “work” God has given us to do.

Wanting nothing. That is, lacking nothing.

5. If any of you. Probably, on the basis of his own Christian experience, James realizes that his fellow believers have not yet reached the desired goal of Christian maturity described in v. 4. He now explains how any man may find the power and understanding that will make him a victorious Christian amid the problems of life.

Lack. Gr. leipoµ, “to fall short.” Compare the use of the word in Luke 18:22.

Wisdom. Gr. sophia, “broad and full intelligence” (see on Luke 2:52; 1 Cor. 1:17). This includes more than even true knowledge, because knowledge alone does not guarantee right action or even right conclusions. Wisdom helps us to place a proper value on everything that competes for our attention, and ensures the proper use of knowledge as we seek for right action.

Let him ask. Wisdom is to be constantly sought in order to meet successfully each new test of faith and endurance, as noted in vs. 3, 4. Many problems of life are baffling to one who cannot meet them from the Christian viewpoint. To see life as God wants us to, we need daily to make certain that our eyes have been anointed with the ointment of heavenly wisdom. See on Matt. 7:11; Luke 18:1–18.

God, that giveth. The OT often refers to that wisdom which God alone can give a man (see Prov. 2:6). Through His Holy Word He speaks encouragement to us amid dreary and difficult trials, and it is because of the heavenly viewpoint which this wisdom brings that we are able to “count it all joy” when life’s problems press heavily on us.

Our God is as much a “giving” God as He is a “righteous” God or a “loving” God. In fact, Ps. 145:17–19 suggests that because the Lord is righteous, He is always ready to “fulfil the desire of them that fear him.” It is God’s nature to give (see on John 3:16), and we can ascribe to Him no greater honor than humbly to seek His gifts of wisdom and strength from day to day.

Liberally. Or, “graciously,” “sincerely.” It is God’s joy to give. When a man seeks wisdom, God answers the request unhesitatingly and without reluctance. There is neither stinted giving nor partiality.

Upbraideth not. Or, “does not reproach [or, “embarrass”].” God does not censure us for our many failures, nor does He continually remind us of the many favors already given to us. James is seeking to emphasize the contrast between the manner in which God bestows His bounties and the way men often humiliate or insult the recipients of their favors. This fact should encourage boldness in making our petitions known to God. We are to come to Him as children seeking the love and help of a solicitous Father (see Heb. 4:16; Matt. 7:11).

Shall be given him. The requisite here set forth for receiving wisdom from God is a sincere request for it. For man’s best interest God does not grant every request, but if we sincerely seek wisdom, it will be granted us. There are several ways in which God can supply wisdom to men. He may increase our understanding of His Word, so that we clearly discern His will for us. He may impress our hearts by His Holy Spirit as to what course of action would be best for us to take (see Isa. 30:21). He may speak to us through friends, or by shaping events and circumstances in such a way as to reveal His will. However, God has given us intelligent minds, and He is honored when we make use of them in solving the problems of life under the guidance of the Holy Spirit. It would not be wise of the Holy Spirit. It would be wise for Him to do for us what He has intended that we should do for ourselves, subject to His guidance. In order that we may learn to exercise maturity of judgment and understanding (see Phil. 1:9), He would have us form the habit of making right decisions on the basis of the broad principles of His revealed will as set forth in Scripture. Then He can the more readily impress His will upon our minds and protect us from the subtle devices of Satan. If, after we have consulted every available source of heavenly wisdom, we make our request, and patiently and trustfully keep our hearts open to Him, we will recognize His answer (see Matt. 7:7).

6. In faith. That is, faith that God will answer the request. Prayer without trusting faith is useless. When we ask for wisdom we are to have confident faith that we will receive it (see v. 5). Not only must we go to the true source of blessing, we must go with the right attitude. We must draw near to our Father, confident in His ability and willingness to help, resting in the certainty of His promises, and pleading our need, not our worthiness. “Faith is trusting God—believing that He loves us and knows best what is for our good” (Ed 253).

Nothing wavering. Or, “nothing doubting.” The man who asks “in faith” will not hesitate, as if uncertain whether God will hear and answer his request. Genuine faith trusts God, and the believer will rest in the assurance that his needs will be quickly supplied as God alone sees best. However, if a man possesses inward doubt as to whether God will hear his petition, the answer to his prayer is seriously hampered. God seeks man’s cooperation in making the answer possible, and cooperation would be lacking in some degree if there was mental uncertainty. Genuine faith rises above the test of time or circumstance, making our allegiance to God steadfast and fixed in purpose. (COL 147). This state of mental division and uncertainty is described in v. 8 as double-mindedness.

He that wavereth. Or, “one who doubts.” James is not here speaking of intellectual doubts, but of spiritual instability. The doubter may be uncertain, not only as to whether or not God will answer his request, but also as to whether God will require more self-sacrifice on his part than he is willing to make. He has mental reservations, and thinks primarily of the cost to self. He does not with his whole soul desire the grace that his lips ask for.

Like a wave. When the mind is filled with uncertainty or doubt, the soul is as restless and agitated as the ocean. On the other hand, one who is convinced of God’s readiness to care for his needs and who unreservedly commits his plan of life to the will of God rises above his trials and afflictions. Compare Isa. 57:20.

Driven with the wind. The billow has no will of its own, but is wholly subject to the force of the wind. It rises and falls as the wind tosses it this way or that. The wind here represents the circumstances that may influence the Christian to doubt.

Tossed. Or, “blown here and there,” a graphic picture of the sea moved by the wind.

7. Not that man. The expression “that man” is emphatic and slightly contemptuous. It represents the man whose allegiance wavers, who is not sure of the things he himself needs or of God’s sufficiency for meeting them. Such a person may pray, but having no genuine faith he is not in a fit frame of mind to receive an answer (see on John 4:48). God must delay answers to our requests until we are ready to exercise unquestioning faith.

Think that he shall receive. James informs the one who wavers not to expect an answer. Indecision is sufficient in itself to defeat God’s gracious purpose for the one who wavers, for if God sees best to deny his request, the forthcoming disappointment would only strengthen his tendency to doubt.

Any thing of the Lord. This refers to specific favors, for all men receive those temporal blessings that God daily bestows. See on Matt. 5:45. The special blessings, which would be available to him if he asked in faith, are denied to him because of wavering trust. However, we must not infer that God delays His answers until we have earned the right to have our prayers answered. No man deserves favors from God. Our only plea is our need and our only hope is in His mercy, which leads Him to give to “all men liberally” (v. 5).

But God does not give gifts indiscriminately. He cannot comply with requests that would further pride and selfishness and hinderthe development of character. We must realize our own utter helplessness and our need of unswerving trust in the promises of God. Strength of character is the result of modifying our desires and aspirations to conform to the wisdom and will of God, not of attempting to bend His will to meet ours.

8. Double minded. Gr. dipsuchos, literally, “two souled.” This word describes the waverer of v. 6. His mind is divided between the call of earthly pleasures and the call of unswerving loyalty to God. In Pilgrim’s Progress, John Bunyan characterized this kind of person as Mr. Facing-both-ways. The “double minded” man possesses two “souls,” or two loyalties. Compare the Hebrew expression, “of double heart” (see 1 Chron. 12:33). No doubt James cherished in his mind the words of Christ in the Sermon on the Mount, “No man can serve two masters” (Matt. 6:24). The “double minded” man halts between belief and unbelief, whereas the man with singleness of purpose does not hesitate at all.

This verse is actually part of the previous verse, and the two verses could be translated thus: “Let not that man [the waverer] think that a double-minded man, being unstable in all his ways, will receive anything from the Lord.”

Unstable. Gr. akatastatos, “inconstant,” “fickle,” “unsteady.” The noun form of akatastatos is commonly used in the sense of “disorder,” “confusion,” “disturbance,” “unsettledness,” and is coupled with “wars” as opposed to “peace” (see Luke 21:9; 1 Cor. 14:33; 2 Cor. 6:5; 12:20).

In all his ways. While the instability mentioned in v. 6 refers specifically to the matter of prayer, the apostle takes this opportunity to stress the fact that such a man is unsettled in other phases of his life. All his “ways,” or habits, actions, and thoughts will reflect his dual purpose in life, and his religious experience will never prove satisfactory, either to himself or to God. Commotion within the mind and confusion in all the affairs of life are the natural consequence of a wavering trust in God. We need wisdom to discern the way to live from day to day, for to alternate between trusting oneself and trusting God is sheer folly for any man. Singleness of purpose is essential to the spiritual success of the Christian.

9. Brother. Turning from the consideration of trials in general, James now discusses two particular trials, namely, those of poverty and wealth. In introducing this delicate subject James repeats (v. 2) the affectionate term “brother,” in order to emphasize the common bond of fellowship that binds both rich and poor in Christian fellowship. Neither wealth nor poverty should be permitted to mar this relationship among Christians.

Of low degree. Gr. tapeinos, “in humble circumstances,” and thus, of lowly rank or employment, in a condition of dependence or of poverty. This phrase is in contrast with “the rich” in v. 10. This condition of economic difficulty is a trial many are called upon to face. Perhaps many a church member of the time of James found himself despised and oppressed because of his lack of worldly goods, even though the acceptance of the Christian faith may have been responsible, at least in part, for his present economic difficulties. These circumstances were a trial in the sense that they tested his “faith” in God and his allegiance to God. “The brother of low degree” is ever tempted to be jealous and resentful toward his “rich” brother, and the “rich” brother to think himself superior to the “brother of low degree” and to take advantage of him.

Rejoice. Literally, “glory,” “boast.” James here gives a practical application of the general advice set forth in v. 2. With the “wisdom” (v. 5) that God gives us we can view life in proper perspective. We can see the things of time in the light of eternity. “Wisdom” places the proper value on earthly possessions and points out that man’s moral nature is more important than his possessions. Therefore, the progress a man makes spiritually is vastly more important than the progress he makes economically. The “glorying” consists in the realization that despite the lack of earthly possessions, God compensates the humble Christian far beyond the joys that the fleeting possessions of earth give.

In that he is exalted. Or, “in his high estate.” The poorer brother’s exaltation must consist in the present spiritual blessings he receives and also in the promised joys to be realized in eternity, which more than make up for his economic hardships on earth. James attempts to contrast the exceeding riches of the mercies of God with the transitory nature of earthly possessions (see 1 John 2:16, 17). There is more security in a mature Christian experience than in all the wealth of the world. Those who have learned to look at the problems of life from God’s point of view, who have acquired the “wisdom” of which James speaks (v. 5), rise above whatever trials may come to them.

10. The rich. That is, “the rich [brother],” in contrast with the poor “brother” of v. 9. James now encourages the wealthy Christian to rejoice in the particular trials that confront him. The Bible never implies that in and of itself the possession of wealth is a sin, or that a rich man cannot be a genuine follower of God (see on Matt. 19:23). There are many instances of good Christians’ being rich in worldly possessions, though not so many, to be sure, as of those who are poor in this world’s goods. However, the Scriptures do clearly point out that riches constitute a unique danger to a successful Christian experience (see on Matt. 6:19–21; Luke 12:13–22).

In that he is made low. Or, “in his humiliation.” Some commentators consider this phrase a strict parallel to “in his high estate” (v. 9). Thus, the poor man is to rejoice in his Christian privileges, both present and future, and the rich man is to rejoice in his Christian humility and the world’s reproach rather than in his material possessions. In other words, the rich man is to rejoice in the fact that though he is now despised as a member of a persecuted sect, he will one day be exalted as a member of the eternal kingdom of God. James is emphasizing in vs. 9 and 10 the fact that regardless of material circumstances the Christian brother, whether rich or poor, will find his most rewarding cause for rejoicing in the privileges of the Christian faith.

Others think that James is speaking of the usual loss of wealth that accompanied a rich man’s espousal of Christianity in the 1st century. The converted rich man found many opportunities for using his wealth. The plight of others in the church, who lost their employment because of their faith, gave him an opportunity to share his possessions. The missionary advance of the apostles, which was phenomenal even when compared with that of modern times, required financial support, and the rich church members rallied to this challenge. There were doubtless many who came boldly forward and used their wealth to benefit their brethren (cf. AA 105). Consequently, the rich Christian saw his material possessions dwindling. But he could rejoice in the privilege of giving of his means for the advancement of the cause of Christ even though it meant the loss of temporal security and a more humble standard of living. This sense of stewardship on the part of early Christians with respect to the funds entrusted to them by God is a worthy example for those in the church today who are blessed with material abundance.

Flower of the grass. James uses an OT illustration (see Isa. 40:6) to emphasize the transitory nature of human life. Compare Isa. 51:12, which declares that the “son of man” “shall be made as grass.”

He shall pass away. The rich man is reminded that he must eventually die. At that time all the material possessions he has labored so hard to amass will pass to another. The rich Christian sees this situation in its proper perspective and rejoices in the opportunity to disburse his riches before he dies (see on v. 10), even though in so doing he may experience economic hardship and personal reproach.

Riches are attractive, but, like the flower, they are also fragile and transitory, and the man who trusts only in his riches will one day perish along with them, without securing the greatest of all riches, eternal life. Thus the brother who possess riches needs to reflect on passages of Scripture that warn against placing trust in riches, which may easily vanish (see on Matt. 6:19; Luke 12:16–21). The Christian must fix his eye of faith upon the wealth of Christian privileges in this life and upon the riches of eternity (see on Matt. 19:29).

11. No sooner risen. James amplifies his parable of the flower (v. 10), which enjoys only a brief existence before it perishes (cf. Matt. 13:6, 21).

The grace of the fashion of it. Or, “the beauty of its appearance,” literally, “the beauty of its face.” Beauty disappears when the flower fades and dies. When the rich man is compared to a flower, his “grace,” or “beauty,” consists of the external surroundings which his wealth can purchase and which the poor are not able to afford. These might include a beautiful house, fancy furniture, expensive clothing, ornaments of precious stones or metals, or anything else that adds to the striking display of his appearance. These all fade in times of economic crisis or in the face of death, even as the beauty of the flower is of brief duration.

So also shall the rich man. James enforces Christ’s warning concerning earthly treasures, which “moth and rust doth corrupt” and which “thieves break through and steal” (see on Matt. 6:19–21). He reminds the “rich” Christian that earthly treasures may be lost before death, but that even should he retain them they will then be completely useless to him. The rich Christian’s only sure basis for rejoicing is in the security he finds in fellowship with Jesus Christ, for this is his only possession that does not fade away.

12. Blessed. Gr. makarios (see on Matt. 5:3). James frequently alludes to the teachings of Jesus (see p. 500), in this instance perhaps to the Sermon on the Mount. Here he seems to be expanding the confident tone of vs. 2, 9, 10. The man who faces the problems of life may, at times, regard himself as unfortunate and may be so regarded by others. However, the apostle desires to correct this viewpoint with a new perspective that envisions the results of faithful endurance as well as a clear view of how trials begin (see v. 14).

Endureth. Gr. hupomenoµ, “to endure steadfastly” (see on v. 3).

Temptation. Gr. peirasmos, “trial” (see on v. 2), implying anything that tries or tests faith or character. Peirasmos includes afflictions such as sickness, poverty, or calamity, as well as direct enticements to sin. This verse emphasizes the blessing that resides in steadfast endurance, which keeps a man unscathed by his trials.

Is tried. Literally, “becomes approved [dokimos, see on v. 3]. The tempted Christian not only has been tried but has been victorious during trial. The faithful Christian may be compared with the true gold that remains after the dross has been burned away (cf. Job 23:10).

Crown of life. That is, the crown which is life, or which consists of life. See on Rev. 2:10. The reward for faithful endurance amid present problems will be life eternal. This gift of eternal life (see Rom. 6:23) is the crown of all gifts. While it is true that eternal life begins when a man allows the Holy Spirit to control him, this “crown of life” will actually be bestowed upon all the redeemed at the same time, at the second advent of Christ (see on John 3:16; 11:25; 2 Tim. 4:8; 1 John 5:11, 12).

Lord. Textual evidence (cf. p. 10) favors the omission of this word, although it is clear from the context that the Lord is the One who promises. Our Lord personally promises the gift of eternal life to all who choose to accept God’s plan of redemption (see on John 3:16).

Them that love him. The requirement for eternal life is clearly revealed to man. Faith in God (see Rom. 3:28; 4:5, 13) and love for Him are two closely related ways of describing man’s sincere response to God’s offer of salvation. We cannot love God unless we are willing to trust Him fully and believe that His way of life is best for us.

13. Let no man say. The idea that the gods were responsible for man’s temptations and ensuing sins was especially prevalent among the Greeks of James’s day and apparently, in some degree, permeated the thinking of Christians also. It was this type of accusation that our first parents made against God following their sin (Gen. 3:12, 13). Adam blamed God for creating Eve as his wife and Eve, in turn, blamed Him for placing the serpent in the Garden of Eden. James’s caution is timely in every age, lest a man indirectly, and possibly unwittingly, charge his Maker with causing the enticements to sin that he faces daily.

Tempted. Gr. peirazoµ, “to try,” “to test,” here used in a bad sense of inducement to evil (see on vs. 2, 3). James makes clear that the sufferings, trials, and problems that every Christian faces should never be understood as permitted by God for the purpose of enticing men to sin. God will permit men to face trials, but never with the intent that any man should fail. God’s purpose is like that of the refiner, who casts his ore into the crucible with the hope that a purer metal will be the result—not with the intention of piling up dross. Satan, however, tempts with the intention of causing defeat and never of strengthening a man’s character (see on Matt. 4:1). “Suffering is inflicted by Satan, and is overruled by God for purposes of mercy” (DA 471).

Cannot be tempted. Gr. apeirastos, “untemptable,” “untempted.” James shows that it is inconceivable that God would tempt men to sin. He cannot be tempted with the desire to tempt men to do evil. Though God grants to every man the power of free choice, He must not be charged with the evil deeds this freedom makes it possible for man to commit. James categorically absolves God from being the source of any man’s enticements to sin.

14. Every man is tempted. If God is not the source of temptation the inevitable natural question arises, “Who, or what, is the source?” The apostle emphasizes that the source of sin is not outside a man, but within him.

When he is drawn away. Or, “when he is being lured.” A man’s own “lust” draws him away, or entices him.

“Vice is a monster of so frightful mien,

As to be hated needs but to be seen;

Yet seen too oft, familiar with her face,

We first endure, then pity, then embrace.”

—Alexander Pope, Essay on Man,Epistle II, line 217

Lust. Gr. epithumia, “desire,” “craving,” “longing” (see on Mark 4:19). The source of all temptation is man’s own “craving” for that which is evil. Each person has his own particular cravings, which arise from his own temperament and experiences. However, the fact that there is this evil lust within does not deny the existence and activity of an external tempter who seeks to take advantage of our weak tendencies (cf. John 14:30; see on Matt. 4:1–3). Satan and his evil hosts are the real agents of temptation (see Eph. 6:12; 1 Thess. 3:5). While they may tempt man to sin, their temptations would have no force were there not in man a desire to respond to the inducement. “No man can be forced to transgress. His own consent must be first gained; the soul must purpose the sinful act, before passion can dominate over reason, or iniquity triumph over conscience” (MYP 67). The nature of temptation, thus defined, removes any thought that God decrees man’s temptations or that Satan is actually responsible for man’s moral lapses. Man falls before temptation because of a desire to satisfy a particular craving that is contrary to the will of God.

Enticed. Gr. deleazoµ, “to entice by bait,” “to lure.” As a fish is enticed to its doom by the bait that is on the hook, so men are enticed to fall into sin by the bait of the deceitfulness and flattery of sin. The force and power of sin could not prevail were it not for sin’s cunning and guile. This fact is evident as one reviews the sad history of sinning men and women, beginning with Eve and Adam and extending to our own time (see on Gen. 3:1–6).

15. Then. That is, the next step.

Lust. Literally, “the lust,” here, evil lust (cf. v. 14) which finds sin appealing. “Lust,” or “desire,” of themselves need not be identical with “sin.” There are natural and legitimate desires that God placed in man at creation, such as the desire for food, for physical comfort, for parenthood, and for social acceptance. However, when man seeks to satisfy even these basic wants in ways contrary to God’s plan, he flirts with sin and allows himself to be enticed into sinful acts. See on Matt. 4:1–4.

Conceived. If nourished and cherished, unbridled desire eventually gives birth to sinful acts.

Bringeth forth. Gr. tiktoµ, “to give birth,” “to produce.”

Sin. Here is the proof that when evil desire (“lust”) is allowed to control the mind the end result can only be sin.

Finished. Or, “completed,” “come to maturity.” Before it is fully developed, sin may, because of its deceitful nature, easily be mistaken for something good. But when it is “finished,” or “full grown,” its destructive results become obvious.

Death. Sin destroys friendships, family circles, promising futures, and self-respect. No matter how subtle the camouflage, sin’s inevitable result is deterioration and death (see on Rom. 6:23), both spiritual and physical. The “death” here referred to is not simply the first death, which comes to all (see on Rom. 5:12; cf. 1 Cor. 15:22), but the second death, annihilation (see on Rev. 20:6). God is not the author of death, but of life. Hence He is not the author of sin, which brings forth death. Death, in whatever form it exists, is to be traced to sin, and sin naturally and inevitably produces it.

16. Do not err. Or, “be not led astray,” “do not be deceived.” Satan’s studied purpose is to blind the eyes of man in regard to God’s part in the history of sin. Most of this world’s philosophies and religions are built on false concepts by which Satan seeks to distort the character of God. James would not have Christians believe that God is responsible for sin and the evils that sin produces. The following two verses suggest additional reasons on this point, lest some still be inclined to think of God as being, in some way, responsible for temptation.

My beloved brethren. See on v. 2.

17. Every. God is the only source of moral and physical benefits, whether given to Christians or to non-Christians.

Good. The contrast between this word, which describes God’s dealings with men, and the “temptations” and “lusts” in vs. 14, 15, is obvious. God does not give to men gifts that will harm them (see on Matt. 7:11).

Gift. Gr. dosis, literally, “the act of giving.” Every impulse to give is from God. It is God’s nature to give (see v. 5), and it is in response to His Spirit and example that men share their possessions with one another.

Perfect. Every element of evil is excluded.

Gift. Gr. doµreµma, “present,” “benefaction,” “gift.” The word occurs in the NT only here and in Rom. 5:16.

From above. That is, from God (see on John 3:3, 31). God works through men, and as far as their thinking is true they reveal a portion of the fuller truth that God is anxious for man to comprehend (cf. Ed 14).

Cometh. This is James’s final argument against the fallacy that God, either directly or indirectly, is the source of temptation. The “perfect” goodness of God is man’s assurance that He does not send the problems of life that arise from without or the temptations that come from within.

Father. Here in the sense of “Creator” (see Mal. 2:10; Heb. 12:9; Job 38:28).

Lights. In view of the context, it seems that the heavenly bodies are here indicated (see Ps. 8:3; Amos 5:8). So far as our earth is concerned, the most prominent of these is the sun, an indispensable source of blessing to our world. However, the splendor of heavenly bodies is only a faint illustration of the nature of God, who dwells “in the light which no man can approach unto” (1 Tim. 6:16). “Light” is frequently equated with “life” to describe in feeble terms of human understanding the surpassing splendor of God (see on Matt. 5:14; John 1:4, 9).

No variableness. Physical sources of light vary in intensity. Even the sun appears to change from sunrise to sunset and from season to season. But with God there is no change of mood or purpose. He is ever the immutable God, forever anxious to save lost men in a lost world, through every possible means. This is in happy contrast with the fickleness and alternating moods attributed to heathen gods.

Shadow of turning. Not only is there no variableness in God, there is not even the very least plausible excuse for men to charge Him with fickleness.

18. Will. Or, “studied purpose,” “deliberate decision.” What God “wills” for us is in contrast with the will of man, which often submits to human “lusts” (see on vs. 14, 15).

Begat. Gr. tiktoµ (see on v. 15). Instead of being the ultimate cause of our sins, God is the author of all the holiness that has ever developed in the hearts of men. As earthly sons resemble their fathers, so will born-again Christians grow up to reflect the character of their heavenly Father. A true Christian is as different a person from what he was before conversion as if he were physically formed again and born anew.

Word of truth. That is, the gospel of salvation (see on Eph. 1:13). Paul expresses it more plainly: “In Christ Jesus I have begotten you through the gospel” (1 Cor. 4:15; see also 1 Peter 1:23, 25). Conversion is the product of a full commitment to the principles of the Scriptures. The process of growing up, following the new birth, depends upon how much of the Word of God man practices in his life.

Firstfruits. The offering of the “firstfruits” was a symbol of the consecration of the whole harvest (see on Ex. 23:19). While the first fruits were, presumably, the best of their kind and the first to reach maturity they were also a pledge of the harvest to follow. Christ is “the firstfruits of them that slept,” a pledge of the resurrection to come (see 1 Cor. 15:20, 23). This expression is common in the NT (see also Rom. 8:23; 16:5; Rev. 14:4). While applying the term to the believers the apostle carefully qualifies it with the expression, “a kind of,” or “a sort of.” God’s will for men is that they should become like Him, and the duty of the church is to nurture the newly begotten Christian until he approaches “the measure of the stature of the fullness of Christ” (Eph. 4:13).

19. Wherefore. Textual evidence favors (cf. p. 10) the reading “know ye” or “ye know.” With either reading this verse presents the conclusion that since God is the source of good and tempts no man, and since He has begotten each Christian and conferred on him the honor of being a kind of first fruits, the Christian ought to put into practice those principles of the gospel that he has learned.

Beloved brethren. See on v. 2.

Swift to hear. Though church members have already been born again by the Word (see v. 18), this does not excuse them from continuing to listen to the “word.” Rather, they should hear it with more attention and earnestness, even as the Lord said, “He that hath ears to hear, let him hear” (Luke 8:8; 14:35; etc.). Paul urges church members continually to increase “in the knowledge of God” (see on Col. 1:10; see 2 Peter 1:5). Though this is evidently the primary intent of the phrase, its meaning certainly includes also the general suggestion that men should be more ready to hear than to speak.

Slow to speak. In view of the repeated references to unbridled tongues found in this epistle (chs. 1:26; 3:1–18; 4:11), it is apparent that James often encountered the problem of hasty speech. This evil is mentioned elsewhere in the Scriptures (see Prov. 10:19; 17:27, 28; Eccl. 5:2). The emphasis is on being slow to begin speaking, not on speaking slowly.

Slow to wrath. Above all others, a Christian should be able to restrain his temper (see Job 5:2; Prov. 15:18; 16:32; 19:19; 22:24; 25:28; 27:3; Rom. 12:18). The three admonitions in this verse are in the light of the privilege set forth in James 1:18. For example, those who fulfill the will of God in their lives will be known for their eagerness to learn continually of truth, for their self-control in not prematurely urging the truth on others, and for their winsomeness in studying with those who disagree.

20. Wrath. Or, “anger.” Anger is especially inappropriate and harmful when brought into a religious controversy. An angry zeal for the cause of Christ does not recommend a person as being acquainted with the spirit of Christ. It is still true that “a kind, courteous Christian is the most powerful argument that can be produced in favor of Christianity” (GW 122).

Righteousness of God. The character of a loving Father is not reflected in a hasty-tempered church member. This declaration is an understatement of a truth known by all, that wrath actively produces the opposite of righteousness. It does not induce us to embrace truth, but leads us to oppose. It does not heal, but hurts.

21. Wherefore. James now turns to a practical application of the general principle set forth in v. 20.

Lay apart. Or, “strip off,” as clothing. (See Eph. 4:25; Col. 3:9; 1 Peter 2:1.)

All filthiness. As one strips off soiled clothing, so church members are to remove all “filthiness” of mind and soul.

Superfluity. Gr. perisseia, “abundance,” “residue.” Any evil is superfluous in the Christian life. With all diligence the Christian is to address himself to the task of eliminating whatever imperfections of character may still persist.

Naughtiness. Gr. kakia, “ill will,” “malice,” “wickedness” (see Eph. 4:31; Col. 3:8; Titus 3:3). The spirit of kindness and humility, both in receiving Christian instruction and in giving it to others, is stressed as the practical goal for each church member. The problem of unbridled tongues could be eliminated if church members would lay aside all “ill will” and suspicion.

Meekness. Gr. prau¬teµs, “gentleness.” For the adjective prau¬s see on Matt. 5:5. “Meekness” is the opposite of the “wrath” of v. 20, which makes men unteachable. Meekness is not a low estimate of oneself, but a modest, gentle, forbearing spirit, and a calm, forgiving disposition.

The engrafted word. Rather, “the implanted word.” The gospel is a gift of God and is likened elsewhere to the “seed” that is planted in the soil of the heart (see on Matt. 13:3–8). Salvation is not the result of personal study or of any other achievement of man. The “word” is “engrafted” within a man when he chooses to make the principles of Scripture the pattern for his life.

Able to save. The “word” may be compared with the “gospel,” which Paul declares is the “power of God” (see on Rom. 1:16). The Scriptures reveal this gospel of the power of God, which is available to all. When, by the power of God, a man lives according to the principles of the “word” he is inwardly guided by the “implanted word” (see on Rom. 10:17).

22. Doers. James refers to the Sermon on the Mount (see p. 500; Matt. 7:21–29). This qualifies the foregoing precept, to be “swift to hear” (James 1:19). It is not enough to remember what we hear or even to be able to teach it to others. We must systematically and persistently practice the “word of truth” (v. 18) in our personal program of life. Thus the apostle James is in perfect agreement with the teachings of Paul: “For not the hearers of the law are just before God, but the doers of the law shall be justified” (Rom. 2:13).

Not hearers only. This is certainly no condemnation of those who hear the “word of truth” read and explained. The wrong lies in “only” hearing and going no further in applying the “word” to the life (see on Matt. 7:21–27; Rom. 2:13).

Deceiving. Gr. paralogizomai, “to delude,” “to deceive by false reasoning.” The deception is one into which a man betrays himself by false reasoning. The hearer deceives himself when he reasons that mere listening to the word, or much discussion about truth, or membership in the church is sufficient for salvation. There must be a complete transformation of the life by the power of the Holy Spirit, which energizes believers into being “doers of the word.”

23. Not a doer. By itself, hearing produces only transient impressions and momentary convictions of duty. The sincere Christian learns in order that he may do the will of God, not merely that he may know.

Beholding. That is, considering attentively. Presumably, the person who looks into a mirror thereby gives evidence of a genuine desire to find out the facts. Similarly, “a hearer of the word” should seek, as a result of what he hears, to understand his spiritual condition. But this is not enough; he must do something about it.

Natural face. As a mirror reflects the likeness of the human face, soiled or blemished as it may be, so the law of God reveals the moral countenance, marred with defects and stained with sin. To hear and to understand the Word of God is like looking into a mirror. In viewing the perfect precepts of the law as magnified in the character of Jesus Christ, we become aware of our own shortcomings and defects. The mirror of truth never flatters. Paul was unaware of his own corrupt nature until he saw himself in the mirror of the law. Without the law he thought himself morally adequate, “alive,” but when he really understood its lofty principles he realized that he was spiritually dead (see on Rom. 7:9).

Glass. Or, “mirror.” Ancient mirrors were made of polished metal, not glass.

24. Goeth. The moment he turns from the mirror he forgets his true appearance. The test of sincerity and purpose is in the response a man makes to the challenge of the Word of God. Those who are “hearers only,” as a result of either procrastination or “false reasoning” (see on v. 22), choose not to surrender their lives to God. The man who hears only may be compared to the “way side” hearer of Matt. 13:4.

Straightway forgetteth. The apostle does not necessarily refer to any intention to forget but to what inevitably occurs when sincerity is lacking. Without a wholehearted decision to conform to the will of God as it is made known, even the best of intentions “straightway” vanish.

25. Looketh. Here begins the application of the “mirror” illustration (v. 24).

Perfect. See on Matt. 5:48; James 1:4.

Law. There may be an allusion to Christ’s teaching concerning the law, in the Sermon on the Mount (see on Matt. 5:17, 18). Also, a close parallel to Paul’s comments on “law” is obvious (see on Rom. 2:12; 7:12). In ch. 2 James equates “law” with the Decalogue (vs. 10, 11), and apparently refers to that code here also (see GC 466). For another inspired statement about the “law” being “perfect” see Ps. 19:7. The “perfect law” may be compared to the “word of truth” (James 1:18) and to the “engrafted word” (v. 21), the “doing” of which is the life of Christian obedience. The “law” is a description of the character of God—the true standard of righteousness—and outlines proper relationships between God and man, also relationships among men. The “law,” therefore, becomes a “mirror” by means of which a man can evaluate his motives and actions.

Liberty. The lawbreaker finds his freedom restricted. The motto, “Obedience to law is liberty,” is frequently seen on courtroom walls, and is a worthy motto for every Christian to remember. When, by the grace of God, a man accepts the Saviour’s yoke (Matt. 11:28–30), he sees the law as being clearly in accord with his highest interests and conducive to his highest happiness (see DA 329). He then looks upon the will of God as liberty, and upon sin as bondage. The apostle points to the moral law as the infallible rule of duty (see on ch. 2:12). When we acknowledge the defects of character it points out to us, and turn to Christ to remedy them, we find that the law has pointed the way to true liberty, for the highest liberty is freedom from sin. However, the keeping of the law, whether moral or ceremonial, as a means of justification, makes of it a yoke of bondage (see Vol. VI, pp. 933–935; see on Gal. 2:16).

Continueth. Only to those who “seek” first the “kingdom of God” (see on Matt. 6:33) will the law be an avenue to “liberty.” It brings freedom only to those who, by the grace of God, make it a life habit to reflect the character of Christ (see on John 8:31–36).

Doer of the work. The law of God gives direction and motivation for the living of a genuine Christian life. Thus, the Christian will be a doer of Christlike deeds. Every man will finally be judged “according to his deeds” (Rom. 2:6), and the “law” alone provides man with a safe yardstick by which to measure his deeds (see on Rom. 2:6, 13).

Blessed. There is no end to the “blessings” that come to those who fully commit their ways to God (see on Ps. 1:1–3; Matt. 19:29).

In his deed. Literally, “in his doing.” He will be blessed in the very act of obedience to God’s law (see Ps. 19:11). The action itself is not the source of blessing, for that would constitute a man righteous by works; rather, the doing of the will of God removes barriers that would otherwise shut us off from His blessing.

26. If any man. James now concludes with a practical application of his comparison between the mere “hearer” of the law and the “blessed” “doer.”

Among you. Textual evidence favors (cf. p. 10) the omission of this phrase.

Seem. Gr. dokeoµ, “to think,” “to suppose.” The stress is on what a man thinks of himself, imagines himself to be, and not on what he “seems” to be to others. James here amplifies his warning of v. 22, that mere knowledge of the truth does not constitute genuine Christianity. To think that it does is self-deception.

Religious. Gr. threµskos, religious, especially from the point of view of religion expressing itself in outward service. A man may think that mere outward attention to religious form is genuine Christianity. A man may think that such things as regular church attendance, substantial gifts, and leadership in church affairs constitute “religion” pleasing to God (v. 27). He fails to realize that all this outward attention to religion without inner heart devotion will prove to be in “vain” (see on Matt. 6:1–7, 16–18).

Bridleth. James compares a reckless, uncontrolled tongue to an unbridled horse. Without a “bridle” both tongue and horse endanger all who are near. The apostle pleads with his fellow church members to acquire the commendable habit of discretion in speech (see v. 19), which reflects the inner man (see on Matt. 12:34–37). Some feel that zeal in talking about “religion” is evidence of true religion, but James urges Christians to do right rather than merely to talk about right. Outward attention to “religion” is necessary, but if the tongue is unbridled or if any other sin is indulged, it will be evident that the inner man has not yet been transformed by the grace of God.

Deceiveth. No deception is more pitiful than self-deception. An external show of righteousness may win the commendation of men, who look only on the outward appearance (cf. 1 Sam. 16:7). The heart must be motivated by the “perfect law” (James 1:25) before a man can live meekly (v. 21) before God and man.

Vain. Gr. mataios, “useless,” “aimless,” “to no purpose” (see on 1 Cor. 15:17). Outward piety and good deeds come to nought if not motivated by a sincere desire to have every thought and deed conform to the “perfect law of liberty.”

27. Pure. See on Matt. 5:8.

Religion. Gr. threµskeia, religion, especially as it expresses itself in religious worship. However, the apostle does not here define “true religion,” but points to the fact that the outward evidence naturally accompanies the true heart experience. This is not a description of the whole of religion, but of only two pertinent examples of the genuine religious spirit that leads to such acts. See on Micah 6:8.

Undefiled. The Pharisees relied on the forms of ritual righteousness to keep themselves undefiled, but they were full of moral defilement within (see on Mark 7:1–23). James here points to a far superior type of outward evidence of “pure religion.”

God and the Father. Or, “God even the Father,” that is, “God the Father.” True religion teaches us to do everything as if we were in the presence of God. Furthermore, God knows the motives as well as the actions (see on Matt. 6:1–18). Even the performance of the good works here mentioned is not evidence of “pure religion and undefiled” unless the works are prompted by right motives. Many give to charity only to enhance their standing in the eyes of their fellow men, or perhaps with their eyes only upon their income tax deductions.

To visit. Gr. episkeptomai, “to visit,” with the idea of looking after. The related noun, episkopos, is translated “overseer,” or “bishop” (see on Acts 11:30). The “bishop,” or “elder,” should be an example to all the believers in practicing “pure religion” as here defined, thus revealing a heart filled with the love of God (see on Ps. 68:5).

Fatherless. Gr. orphanoi, “orphans” (cf. on John 14:18).

Widows. James’s readers doubtless knew well of the contemporary practices of the Pharisees, who took advantage of widows (see on Matt. 23:14). Orphans and widows need the comfort and encouragement of interested friends, not merely financial support.

Keep himself. Exerting the true power of the will, the Christian endeavors to serve God, at the same time praying and depending wholly on Him (see John 17:15; Jude 24). Success in the Christian life comes only to him who unites human effort with the omnipotent power of God.

Unspotted. Gr. aspilon, “without moral blemish” (see 1 Tim. 6:14).

World. As it now exists, the “world” is synonymous with evil principles and practices that are contrary to the will of God (see John 17:14–16). The truly converted church member will avoid any thought or deed that allows the filth of the “world” to stain him.

Ellen G. White comments

2 6T 365

4 CH 381; MH 231; ML 15, 97; 4T 39; 7T 131

5 CT 360; DA 313, 363; Ed 191, 231; Ev 327; FE 299, 441; GW 417; MH 208; MYP 124; PK 31; PP 248, 384; TM 323, 325, 376, 478, 499; 2T 152; 5T 322, 427

5, 6 2T 643; 5T 725; 8T 106

5–7TM 193; 2T 130

5–8FE 437

6 ML 8

6, 7 1T 121

6–8FE 300

7 PP 384

8 2T 234

10 Ed 183; PK 548

12 COL 155; 4T 522; 5T 71

13 MB 116

14 4T 623

15 5T 177

17 CT 554; Ed 50; GC 66; MH 233; MM 92, 213; PP 33, 373, 630; SC 21; 5T 315; 6T 175; 8T 23

19 SL 16; 2T 83; 8T 167

19, 20 2T 164, 426

20 2T 52

21 2T 91

21–24FE 460

22 AA 558; CSW 94; Ev 344, 515; MH 466; SL 60; TM 266, 454; 2T 694; 3T 53; 4T 188; 6T 153; 8T 51, 323

23, 24 TM 344; 2T 452; 4T 398

23–253T 116; 4T 59

23–27TM 125

25 GC 466, 467; SL 81; 1T 508, 523, 708; 4T 294; 5T 537

25–27FE 461

26 2T 54, 86, 185; 4T 331

27 AA 579; CH 507, 535, 629; CS 46, 163, 299; FE 290; GW 305; MH 205; ML 239; MYP 142; PP 369; 1T 133, 190, 285; 2T 25, 239, 252, 506; 3T 239, 377, 516, 522, 528; 4T 495; 5T 215, 482; 6T 263, 281, 422; 8T 295; 9T 150; WM 35, 218