Chapter 19

1 God is praised in heaven for judging the great whore, and avenging the blood of his saints. 7 The marriage of the Lamb. 10 The angel will not be worshipped. 17 The fowls called to the great slaughter.

1. After these things. That is, after witnessing the scenes of chs. 17 and 18 (see on ch. 18:1). Those of ch. 19 were presented to John immediately, without interruption. From v. 2 it is apparent that this song is sung after judgment has been executed upon the “great whore,” an event that takes place under the seventh plague (see on chs. 16:19; 17:1), and thus after the scene described in chs. 17>17:16, 17; 18:4–23. According to TM 432 the singing of this song of praise to God follows immediately upon the completion of the work of the seventh plague-bearing angel. If the events of chs. 18 to 20 are recorded in chronological order, as appears to be the case, the anthem of ch. 19:1–7 is sung in close connection with events at the second coming of Christ, whether at that very time or just before or after cannot be determined with certainty. The context may be understood as assigning the anthem to a point of time immediately prior to the actual appearance of Christ (cf. v. 11).

A great voice. See on ch. 11:15.

Much people. The inhabitants of heaven, and possibly also men redeemed from this earth (cf. ch. 18:20). It may be that the anthem of ch. 19:1–7 is sung in response to the call of ch. 18:20.

Alleluia. Gr. Allelouia, a transliteration of the Heb. halelu-Yah, “praise ye Yahweh” (see on Ps. 104:35), from halal, “to shine,” “to boast,” “to celebrate,” “to praise,” and Yah, a shortened form of Yahweh. Like another Heb. word “amen,” “hallelujah” has been adopted into the English language practically unchanged. The four occurrences of the word in Rev. 19 (vs. 1, 3, 4, 6) are the only instances of its use in the NT.

Verses 1–7 constitute an antiphonal choral arrangement composed of two anthems and two responses: (1) In vs. 1–3 a great voice in heaven leads out with the theme of the song, ascribing honor and justice to God for having punished Babylon. (2) In v. 4 the “beasts” and the “elders” respond in affirmation. (3) In v. 5 a voice from the throne summons all loyal subjects throughout the universe to a joint recognition of the truth of the theme. (4) In vs. 6, 7 the entire universe unites in acclaiming the right of God to universal sovereignty. This paean of praise stands in striking contrast with the dirge of death in ch. 18:10–19.

The motif of this antiphonal hymn of praise is similar to that Ps. 24:7–10, which is likewise composed of two anthems and two responses. This responsive chorus was first used during the triumphal procession marking the return of the ark to Jerusalem (PP 708), and centuries later at the resurrection (EW 187) and the ascension (DA 833; EW 190, 191).

Salvation. Literally, “the salvation.” In the Greek each of the virtues here ascribed to God is preceded by the definite article. This suggests the fullness, the sum total, of each attribute. The “salvation” of ch. 12:10 (see on comment there) is specifically salvation from “the accuser of our brethren”; here, it is salvation from mystical Babylon (see on ch. 16:17). The one refers to what was accomplished at the first advent, the other, to what is to be accomplished at the second.

Glory. See on Matt. 6:13; Rom. 3:23.

Honour. Textual evidence attests (cf. p. 10) the omission of this word.

Power. See on Matt. 6:13; 28:18.

The Lord. Textual evidence attests (cf. p. 10) the omission of this expression.

2. For. Verse 2 accounts for the ascription of praise in v. 1.

True. That is, genuine, real, dependable (see on ch. 15:3).

Righteous. Or, “just” (see on chs. 15:3; 16:1, 5). God will make no error in His acts of judgment. He will take all the facts into account.

Judgments. Literally, “[acts of] judging” (see on ch. 16:7), here, doubtless, the seven last plagues in general and the judgment of mystical Babylon in particular (see on chs. 17:1; 18:4, 10).

Hath judged. The Greek specifies a single, completed act.

Great whore. See on chs. 17:1, 5.

Did corrupt. Or, “was corrupting.” Her criminal conduct covered a long period of time. See on ch. 17:2, 6.

Her fornication. See on ch. 17:2.

And hath avenged. Or, “in that he hath avenged.” The judging is the avenging. See on ch. 18:6, 20.

Blood of his servants. See on chs. 6:9, 10; 16:6; 17:6.

3. Her smoke rose up. See on ch. 18:8, 9.

For ever and ever. See on ch. 14:11.

4. Elders. See on ch. 4:4.

Beasts. See on ch. 4:6–8.

Fell down. Compare ch. 4:10.

Sat on the throne. See on ch. 4:10.

Amen. See on Matt. 5:18.

5. Out of the throne. This was either the voice of God Himself or that of one speaking for Him (see on ch. 16:17).

Praise. Literally, “keep on praising.” The response to this call is the chorus of voices of vs. 6, 7.

His servants. See on ch. 1:1.

And ye. Or, “even ye,” “ye that fear,” is equivalent to “ye his servants.”

Fear. That is, in the sense of reverential awe (see on ch. 11:18).

Small and great. Compare ch. 11:18.

6. I heard. Compare on ch. 1:2.

As it were. Or, “what seemed to be.”

Voice. See on ch. 14:2.

And as the voice. Rather, “even as the voice,” in both instances where this expression occurs in v. 6.

Many waters. Compare ch. 14:2.

Alleluia. See on v. 1.

Omnipotent. Or, “Almighty” (see on 2 Cor. 6:18; Rev. 1:8).

Reigneth. Literally, “reigned,” in the sense that He “began to reign.” It is at the close of the investigate judgment, but before Christ leaves the most holy place, that He receives His kingdom and begins His reign as “King of kings” (EW 280; GC 428; cf. EW 55).

7. Be glad. The inward experience of the heart.

Rejoice. The outward expression that results from the inward emotion of gladness. It comes from a heart overflowing with happiness that Christ is now reigning as king (cf. ch. 18:20).

Honour.Literally, “glory.” This is the climatic expression of gratitude and devotion.

Marriage. “The bride, the Lamb’s wife” is “that great city, the holy Jerusalem” (ch. 21:2, 9, 10). The New Jerusalem is to be the capital of the new earth, and as such is representative of “the kingdoms of this world,” which are to “become the kingdoms of our Lord, and of his Christ” (chs. 11:15; 21:1–5; GC 426). The New Jerusalem will contain the Garden of Eden, in which the tree of life has been preserved (see ch. 22:1, 2; cf. PP 62; GC 299, 646–648). The wedding here referred to consists of the reception by Christ of His kingdom, as represented by the New Jerusalem, and His coronation as King of kings and Lord of lords, in heaven at the close of His priestly ministry before the plagues are poured out (EW 55, 251, 280, 281; GC 427, 428; see on ch. 17:14). As in the parable of the Ten Virgins, the waiting saints are represented as guests invited to the wedding (ch. 19:9; GC 426, 427; cf. Matt. 25:1–10).

The Lamb. See on ch. 5:6.

Is come. Or, “has [finally] come,” that is, the event has already taken place when this announcement is made (see above on “marriage”; cf. on v. 1).

Made herself ready. John continues his figurative account in terms of an ancient Oriental wedding. For comment on customs connected with such an occasion see on Matt. 22:1–13; 25:1–10; John 2:1–10.

8. To her was granted. John has set forth the New Jerusalem symbolically as the bride (see on v. 7). Continuing the figure, he speaks of the garments in which she is arrayed.

Fine linen. Here a figure for a righteous character (cf. chs. 3:5; 6:11; see on ch. 3:18; cf. on ch. 22:14).

Clean. Literally, “splendid,” brilliant and shining like the light of a lamp. The same word is translated “gorgeous” in Luke 23:11, and “bright” in Rev. 22:16.

White. Literally, “pure.”

Righteousness. Gr. dikaioµmata, “righteousness deeds,” not dikaiosuneµ, “righteous character” (see on Matt. 5:6; Rom. 3:20). Righteous deeds are the natural and inevitable result of a righteous character. Dikaioµmata applies particularly to the sanctified deeds of the Christian, his victorious life developed by the grace of the indwelling Christ (see on Gal. 2:20; James 2:17, 18, 20). For comment on the wedding garment in the parable of the Man Without a Wedding Garment see on Matt. 22:11. Compare on Matt. 5:48; see COL 315–317.

9.He. That is, the angel of v. 10.

Write. See on ch. 1:2, 11.

Blessed. Or, “happy” (see on Matt. 5:3).

Called. That is, invited to the marriage feast (see on Matt. 22:14; Rom. 8:28).

Supper. Gr. deipnon, the evening meal. The “marriage supper of the Lamb” takes place at the end of earth’s long day. See on Matt. 22:1–14.

The Lamb. See on ch. 5:6.

These. That is, the words of the invitation.

True sayings. Literally, “genuine [ones].” The invitation is absolutely trustworthy; it can be depended upon.

10. Fell. A typical Oriental gesture of reverence and worship. Here it is an expression of profound joy and gratitude, for the marriage supper is a celebration of triumph over the forces of evil, which have sought to prevent this very event. This is the first occasion on which John responded thus to the message of the angel, and represents the depth of feeling it stirred in him.

Do it not. Compare Acts 10:26.

Fellowservant. Literally, “fellow slave,” “fellow bondsman.” What a privilege it is that devoted workers on earth may share the companionship of, and be co-workers with, heavenly angels!

Of thy brethren. That is, a fellow servant of thy brethren. Some have considered this designation as evidence that the speaker must be a member of the human family, such as Enoch, Elijah, Moses, or one of the saints raised with Christ at His resurrection. However, there is no direct evidence in Scripture that a translated human being ever acted in the role of an angel, as here, to reveal truth to his fellow men (cf. EW 231).

The testimony of Jesus. See on chs. 1:2; 12:17.

Spirit of prophecy. For the word “prophecy,” compare the word “prophet” in Matt. 11:9. The Holy Spirit was sent to bear testimony to Jesus (John 15:26), and His witness is equivalent to that of Jesus in person. The Spirit of prophecy is one of the gifts of the Spirit (see on 1 Cor. 12:10; Eph. 4:11). For the manifestation of this gift among the people of God in the last days see Additional Note at end of chapter; see on ch. 12:17.

11. Opened. Literally, “standing open.” Heaven was open when John’s attention was first directed to it, and remained open. Compare chs. 4:1; 11:19; 15:5. Accompanied by the angel armies of heaven (ch. 19:14), Christ is seen descending from heaven as King of kings (v. 16) in power and majesty to deliver His faithful people from those who are bent upon their destruction (cf. GC 641). The scene described in vs. 11–21 is the climax of “the battle of that great day of God Almighty,” often called the battle of Armageddon (see on ch. 16:12–19; cf. 6T 406).

Behold. Compare on ch. 21:5.

White horse. In Bible times horses were used almost exclusively in connection with warfare or government business. When used figuratively in the Bible, as here, the horse is usually a symbol of battle (cf. Ex. 15:21; Isa. 43:17; Jer. 8:6; Eze. 38:15; Zech. 10:3; Rev. 14:20; see on ch. 6:2). White typifies holiness of character (see on chs. 3:4; 6:2; 7:14). White horses have ever been the favorite of kings and military leaders. Christ has received the right to rule this earth as King of kings (see on ch. 19:1, 7) and now appears, figuratively, as a warrior, riding forth as a conqueror on a magnificent white charger to occupy His lawful domain and to escort His faithful people back to the “marriage supper” (v. 9; see on ch. 11:15). Compare Isa. 63:1–6.

Faithful and True. It should be remembered that Oriental names depict character (see on Acts 3:16), and that therefore the names here ascribed to Christ specifically represent Him in His role as champion of His beleaguered people on earth. Four statements are made concerning Christ’s name in connection with the battle of Rev. 19:11–21:

1.  Christ is called “Faithful and True” (v. 11) in that He now appears, according to His promise (John 14:1–3), to deliver His own. To them He has seemed to delay His coming (see on Rev. 16:15), but they “have waited for him,” and He now appears for the purpose of effecting their salvation (Isa. 25:9; cf. Rev. 16:17).

2.  The “name written, that no man knew, but he himself” (v. 12) represents the heretofore unknown role in which He now appears, as the avenger of His people (see on ch. 16:1). In the performance of this “strange” work (Isa. 28:21) He acts in a role new to both men and angels.

3.  But as the avenger and deliverer of His people He is still “The Word of God” (v. 13). He is “The Word of God” at work carrying out the will of the Father on earth, now in judgment, as formerly in mercy (see on John 1:1–3; Rev. 19:15).

4.         The title “King of kings, and Lord of lords” (v. 16) applies in a special sense to Christ at this time (see on ch. 17:14). All power has been given into His hands (1 Cor. 15:25). Satan selfishly aspired to the exalted position that had been reserved for Christ as the Son of God (Isa. 14:12–14; Rev. 12:7–9; PP 36). But the latter, not counting equality with the Father a thing to be grasped, had voluntarily relinquished the full exercise of the attributes and prerogatives of Deity for a time (see on Vol. V, p. 918; see on Phil. 2:6-8), and thereby demonstrated His worthiness to receive the honor and dignity implicit in the title “King of kings, and Lord of lords.”

In righteousness. His cause is altogether just (see on chs. 15:3; 16:5). Throughout history earthly rulers have waged war for selfish ends and personal or national aggrandizement. Compare Isa. 11:1–5.

Doth judge and make war. He executes judgment by waging war. This war is against the political and military forces of earth, which had assembled to destroy His faithful servants (see on chs. 13:15; 16:13, 14, 16, 17).

12. His eyes. See on ch. 1:14. As Christ goes forth, the great champion of eternal justice, nothing escapes His notice.

Crowns. Gr. diadeµma (see on ch. 12:3). In the Bible diadeµma is never applied to the reward of the saints. It is always the crown of royalty. In addition to the many royal crowns that Christ receives as King of kings, He also wears the chaplet of victory, the stephanos, since He too overcame Satan (see on ch. 12:3; 14:14).

A name. See on v. 11; cf. on ch. 2:17.

13. Vesture. Gr. himation (see on Matt. 5:40), here perhaps a rider’s coat, or the cloak of a military commander.

Dipped in blood. Figuratively, of course. The question arises as to whose blood stains the cloak of the rider. Some have suggested that it is a symbol of Christ’s own blood shed on the cross, on the assumption that it cannot be that of the wicked, who, at this point in the narrative, have not yet been slain. However, Christ here appears, not in the role of “a Lamb as it had been slain” (ch. 5:6), but of a conquering warrior. The striking similarity between this passage and that of Isaiah (ch. 63:1–6) suggests that this passage is a fulfillment of the words of Isaiah.

His name. See on v. 11.

Word of God. See on John 1:1. In executing divine justice on those who persist in rebellion against the government of heaven, Christ is as truly the “Word of God” as when, at His first advent, He came to earth with the gracious offer of divine mercy. His coming on both occasions is an expression of the divine will.

14. Armies. That is, the angelic hosts that accompany Christ at His second advent (see Matt. 24:31; 25:31). See on Rev. 17:14; cf. Matt. 22:7.

15. Out of his mouth. The sword is obviously figurative. By the word of the Lord the earth and its inhabitants were brought into being (Ps. 33:6, 9), and now, by the word of His mouth, He terminates their existence (see Rev. 19:20, 21).

Sword. Gr.rhomphaia (see on ch. 1:16), the large weapon of assault used by soldiers of ancient times, in contrast with themachaira, the short stabbing sword used in defense (see on Luke 22:36). Compare Jer. 46:10.

Smite. Literally, “smite [once for all].”

Rule. Gr. poimainoµ, literally, “to shepherd” (see on Matt. 2:6). The expression “and shall rule them” may better be translated, “that is, shall rule them,” for the smiting and the ruling refer to the same thing.

Rod of iron. See on Rev. 2:27; cf. Ps. 2:9; 110:1, 2, 5, 6. The ancient shepherd’s rod had a double function. The crook on one end served to help and guide the sheep, while the heavy ferrule on the other end, a metal cap or ring to strengthen the rod, made it also a weapon of assault. This was used for the protection of the flock, to repel and kill wild animals that would scatter and destroy it. It is now time for the Good Shepherd to use the “rod of iron” against the nations for the deliverance of His beleaguered flock on earth. His ruling, or smiting the nations, with a rod of iron results in their extermination, not their government during the millennium, as some hold (see Additional Notes on Chapter 20, Note 2).

Winepress. See on Isa. 63:3; Rev. 14:19, 20, where the same figure is developed further. Compare Lam. 1:15.

Of the fierceness and wrath. Rather, “which is the fury of the anger.” See on ch. 16:1.

Almighty. See on ch. 1:8.

16. Vesture. See on v. 13.

And on his thigh. Preferably, “that is, upon his thigh.” The name was seen inscribed on the part of his cloak that covered the thigh.

A name. See on v. 11.

King of kings. See on ch. 17:14; cf. on ch. 19:6.

17. Standing in the sun. Perhaps the blinding light of the sun is here descriptive of the glorious light of the divine presence (cf. 2 Thess. 2:8, 9; Rev. 6:15–17). Thus the angel who issues the challenge of ch. 19:17 would be standing next to Christ, as in ancient combat an armor-bearer would be near his lord.

Fowls. This invitation to the “fowls” warns the assembled hosts of the wicked as to the fate that impends for them (see on ch. 16:15–17). It is couched in the graphic Oriental phraseology of a challenge to personal combat (cf. 1 Sam. 17:44–46). To be devoured by the scavengers of the skies constituted one of the curses for disobedience pronounced by Moses in his valedictory address to the people of Israel (Deut. 28:26). John’s phraseology in Rev. 19:17, 18 appears to be based on God’s words to the heathen nations of earth as recorded in Eze. 39:17–22 (cf. Jer. 7:32, 33).

Supper. The gruesome alternative to eating at the marriage supper of the Lamb (v. 9) is to be eaten by the fowls of heaven at the “supper of the great God.” Those who do not voluntarily accept God’s gracious invitation to be present at the one must respond to His imperative summons to the other.

18. Flesh. Literally, “flesh pieces” (cf. on ch. 17:16).

Kings. The confederate nations of earth, acting in concert under the direct supervision of Satan in the guise of an angel of light (cf. on chs. 16:14, 16, 17; 17:12, 14).

Captains. The leaders in command of the military forces assembled to carry out Satan’s will in the closing scenes of the great controversy.

Mighty men. Armed forces organized, trained, and equipped.

Flesh of horses. The remainder of v. 18 is a graphic word picture of the total destruction of all the forces of evil at the second coming of Christ (cf. chs. 6:15; 14:17–20; 16:21).

Free and bond. Compare ch. 13:16.

19. The beast. See on ch. 17:3, 8, 11.

Kings of the earth. See on chs. 16:14, 16; 17:12–14.

Their armies. Now assembled for battle and engaged in bitter conflict among themselves (see on ch. 16:17, 19).

Gathered together. See on ch. 16:14, 16.

War. Literally, “the war,” that is, “the battle of that great day of God Almighty,” often called the battle of Armageddon (see on ch. 16:14).

Him that sat. See on v. 11.

His army. Compare “they that are with him” (ch. 17:14; cf. on chs. 16:12; 19:14).

20. The beast. See on ch. 17:3, 8.

Taken. Or, “captured.” The phrase of the battle following Christ’s appearance is short and dramatic, for at its very outset the “beast” and the “false prophet” are captured (see on ch. 16:17, 19).

False prophet. That is, apostate Protestantism, which is deluded by Satan and cooperates with him (see on chs. 13:11–17; 16:14). A “prophet” is one who speaks on behalf of another (see on Matt. 11:9). This “prophet” speaks on behalf of the first beast, in connection with the healing of its “deadly wound” (see on chs. 13:12; 17:8), to persuade the world to unite in allegiance to it.

Miracles … deceived. See on chs. 13:13, 14; 16:14; 17:2; 18:2, 3, 23.

Mark of the best. See on ch. 13:16; cf. chs. 14:9; 16:1.

Image. See on chs. 13:14; 14:9.

A lake of fire. Or, “the lake which is fire.” This phrase immediately turns the reader’s mind to an identical phrase in ch. 20:10, which in turn seems to call for the conclusion that these phrases refer to the same fiery event, namely, the destruction of the wicked at the end of the thousand years. But to do so presents a problem. The 19th chapter is most evidently discussing events in connection with the second coming of Christ. Hence to hold that the lake of fire mentioned in ch. 19:20 describes an event at the close of the millennium is to lift this verse out of its contextual sequence. It is always better, if possible, to find an explanation that allows any given statement to maintain its historical sequence in a passage of Scripture. As regards ch. 19:20, this is possible on the reasonable premise that there is a fiery judgment from God both at the beginning and at the close of the millennium. There is no inconsistency and certainly no contradiction in speaking of a lake of fire at the beginning and a lake of fire at the end of the millennium.

James White wrote thus on this point: “So, if you please, there are two lakes of fire, one at each end of the one thousand years” (RH Jan. 21, 1862).

21. The remnant. Or, “the rest,” that is, all of earth’s inhabitants except the redeemed (see Additional Notes on Chapter 20, Note 2).

Sword. See on v. 15.

Him that sat. See on v. 11.

All the fowls. See on v. 17.

additional note on chapter 19

In ch. 12:17 John speaks of “the testimony of Jesus” which is “the spirit of prophecy” as one of the identifying marks of the “remnant” (see comment there).

The word “prophecy” describes any inspired message communicated by God through a prophet (see on Matt. 11:9). Prophecy may be a prediction of future events, though more commonly it is not. The expression “spirit of prophecy” refers specifically to the “manifestation of the Spirit” in the form of a special gift of the Holy Spirit that inspires the recipient and enables him to speak authoritatively as a representative of God (1 Cor. 12:7–10). when “moved by the Holy Ghost” to do so (2 Peter 1:21). The context of the expression in Rev. 19:10 defines “the testimony of Jesus” and “the spirit of prophecy” in this sense. In view of the fact that the “remnant” of ch. 12:17 specifically refers to the church after the close of the 1260 prophetic days of vs. 6 and 14, that is, after 1798 (see on Dan. 7:25), ch. 12:17 stands as a clear prediction of the special manifestation of the “spirit,” or “gift,” of prophecy in the church in our day. Seventh-day Adventists believe the ministry of Ellen G. White meets the specifications of Rev. 12:17 in a unique way.

The Bible writers refer to more than 20 of their contemporaries who exercised the gift of prophecy, though their messages were not incorporated into the canon. Such were Nathan, Gad, Iddo, Agabus, and others (2 Sam. 7:2; 1 Chron. 29:9; 2 Chron. 9:29; Acts 11:27, 28; 21:10). It is evident, furthermore, that the gift of prophecy was not limited to men, either in OT or in NT times, for there were prophetesses such as Deborah (Judges 4:4), Huldah (2 Chron. 34:22), and the four daughters of Philip (Acts 21:9).

New Testament writers nowhere suggest that the gift of prophecy was to end with the apostolic church. On the contrary, Paul declares that, with the other gifts of the Spirit he lists in Eph. 4:11, it was to continue “till we all come in the unity of the faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God, unto a perfect man, unto the measure of the stature of the fullness of Christ” (v. 13). All of the other special gifts mentioned in v. 11 are still needed in the church, and men and women are still qualified by the Holy Spirit to fill these offices. Why should the office of prophet be considered an exception?

There have ever been counterfeit manifestations of the prophetic gift. Not only was this so in OT times (see Chron. 18; Jer. 27–29), but our Lord warned that the Christian church would be troubled by false prophets, particularly as the time for His second advent should draw near (Matt. 24:11, 24). The deceptive power of these false prophets was to be so great that if it were possible they would “deceive the very elect.” The fact that Christ warned against a false manifestation of the prophetic gift prior to His second coming argues strongly that there would also be a genuine manifestation of this gift, as otherwise He could simply have warned against any and all prophets who might arise.

In harmony with Christ’s warning John counsels the church to test those who claim to have been entrusted with spiritual gifts (1 John 4:1), to determine whether these gifts are genuine. The Scriptures specify certain standards by which those who profess to speak for God are to be measured: (1) The personal life of the prophet will be in harmony with the teachings of Scripture (Matt. 7:15–20). (2) His messages will likewise accord with Scripture. (3) His ministry will exalt Christ as the Son of God and the Saviour of men (1 John 4:2). (4) His ministry will be confirmed by fulfilled predictions (Jer. 28:9; cf. 1 Sam. 3:19). It is reasonable also to expect that the messages he bears will be of practical benefit to the church, that they will be timely and appropriate, that they will be free from human influence, and that when he is in open vision his experience will be similar to that of the Bible prophets. The life, ministry, and writings of Ellen G. White fully meet these various requirements.

Seventh-day Adventists do not consider the writings of Ellen G. White as either a substitute for or an addition to the Sacred Canon. For Adventists, the Bible stands unique and supreme as the test of Christian faith and practice (see EW 78), while the writings of Ellen G. White serve, in her own words, as “a lesser light to lead men and women to the greater light” (EGW RH Jan. 20, 1903). The writings of the Spirit of prophecy do not present a new way of salvation, but are designed to lead men to understand and appreciate the Bible, and to avail themselves of the fount of salvation therein revealed.

Some have speculated that there are degrees of inspiration. Accordingly, they consider such prophets, for example, as Deborah, Nathan, and Agabus, as possessing a lower, or inferior, kind of inspiration than the canonical writers. On the same premises they would consider Ellen G. White as possessing a lower, or inferior, kind of inspiration. But the Bible says nothing about degrees of inspiration, nor does it lend any support to the idea. Adventists believe that all such speculation is not only idle but dangerous. How can finite minds hope to understand the mystery of how God, through the Spirit, uniquely illumines the minds of His chosen spokesmen?

For a discussion of certain questions raised regarding Mrs. White see F. D. Nichol, Ellen G. White and Her Critics.

Ellen G. White comments

1–6TM 432

6     DA 48; GC 673

6, 7 DA 151; PK 721

6–9COL 421

7, 8 8T 154

8     AA 591; AH 536; COL 310; CG 190; Ed 249; ML 272

8, 9 CT 341

9     AH 503; DA 151; EW 19; GC 427; ML 356; TM 19; 1T 69; 6T 412; 7T 54; 8T 153

10   EW 231; ML 41; PP 367

11   GC 641

14   AA 523; GC 641

16   DA 739; EW 179, 286; GC 641; MB 108; SR 410; 6T 406